Wednesday, 19 August 2009
By JonThm9@aol.com Jonathan Thomason M.Eng August 19, 2009
117 Merchant’s Quay, Salford Quays, M50 3XQ
The interactions between molecular fluid atoms flowing in a turbulent way, overcomes the strong atomic force for some of the Hydrogens in compounds, and we see nuclear fusion! We form He, molecular fragments, gamma radiation plus a lot of heat!
It explains why radio carbon dating nearly works, and why nature produces so much O3!
Molecular nuclear fusion
- Naturally occurring instances of nuclear fusion, from atoms bound up in molecular structures; on Earth, today, both by nature and science.
Here I am talking about atoms that are bound up in molecules, doing nuclear fusion, and thus we get the fusion product, and molecular fragments. From water we do so much of it!
In the deep, with green plants in the light, with water falls and breaking waves, Deep Ocean water flows and man’s chemical engines.
There has been some interesting work done by the US Military ‘Contrast and comparison between the Papp engine and the PAGDTM/XS NRGTM Technologies. This was about the generating of gamma radiation from a closed system, with He gas in. This is atomic nuclear fusion, but you might find it interesting.
My biggest reference here is to the authors of ‘Nuclear Fusion in molecular systems’. They are Prof. L Bracci, Prof. G Fiorentini and Prof.G Mezzorani Dipartimento di Fisica, INFN, Pisa, Italy.
Chemical molecular nuclear fusion
2 H2O -> 2 OH- +He2+ + heat and gamma waves.
Chemistry does loads of molecular nuclear fusion, from molecules in aqueous solution. Such reactions produce heat, light X-rays or gamma waves, plus alpha particles again!
The most interesting reactions are those that produce light!. As important are the reactions that produce non ionizing radiation from aqueous solutions. The burning of fossil fuels produces nuclear radiation.
Throughout the universe, the major catalyst to nuclear fusion is fluid turbulence. On all suns the mass of H gas is in a state of boiling, as it does nuclear fusion.
On Earth when we have molecular hydrogen in a state of boiling or flowing in a turbulent fashion, we see the release of gamma radiation and He, as we do molecular nuclear fusion.
This is why there is 0.001% He in the Earth’s air, but it is not held by Earth’s feeble gravity. This means that the Earth is producing He, and the only possible source is by turning water into He and O. As radioactive decay would not produce enough He2+.
Molecular nuclear fusion is why we find He in mantel pockets containing gas or oil. The turbulent flow of hydrocarbons produces it! There is no chemical process that does so.
Nuclear fission deals with a half life, the time in which the radioactive nature of a material halves. This converts the matter into less radioactive substances, with shorter half lives. So the radioactive nature of the material has gone down by a factor of 8, after two Half lives, and after 3, is effectively zero.
It is only right that at this stage I should reference GreenPeace, who used to be so active about radiation. They got side tracked by the Global Warming fiction.
It is looking like Global Warming will turn out to be the most expensive bit of phantom science ever. As noted in today’s papers, ‘no one is able to point to a single piece of evidence that man-made CO2 has a significant affect on the world climate’.
This maintained that CO2 forced the weather, which would warm. Since 2005, the world climate has been cooling, as CO2 output has gone up.
Plants take in the CO2, which in 2003 was at 0.00037%. It has not change since the industrial revolution, despite man’s output.. CO2 is a climate follower.
The only people with an interest in bad mouthing CO2 are nuclear power, who is a big spender with academia: So nuclear power bought the IPCC! Which has renamed itself from ‘Independent …’ to ‘Intergovernmental …’ This happened after I contacted them with this point.
Do feel free to ask them why!
Fusion to top-up the earth
More radioactive substances decay faster, which his why there is no Pu in the Earth’s crust. If we consider that natural substances have an average half life of 8,000 years, after 24,000 all radioactive processes would have ceased. So after 1 million, there would be no radioactive substances in the Earth’s crust.
So after only 1 million years old, all nuclear fission would have stopped. The Earth is estimated to be 4 billion years old. So if nuclear fusion was not happening in the deep, we would not know that radioactivity happed. As it is, nature does molecular nuclear fusion to a large extent.
The radioactive nature of molecular nuclear fusion means that we tend to produce 3He. . Molecular nuclear fusion also produce s18O. 3He decays into 2He in 0.004 seconds[a], and there are no implications of 18O.
The relative over abundance is noted by Winkipedia, but not commented upon. It arises from the terrestrial production method for He. As it is lost to space, we see less of the post-day 2He.
These are produced, along with CH4, by green plants in the light. As mentioned elsewhere in this document, nature is full of molecular nuclear fusion! We do it, with every beat of our heart!
Nuclear fission runs down naturally, but is toxic death. All nature does molecular nuclear fusion, which is safe, clean and basically free! Turning water into He and O. We lose the He to space, and breathe in the O. Plants breathe in CO2, and excrete O2. No CO2. O2 is their waste: CO2 is the gas of life! Plants take in CO2, and produce O2 and carbohydrates. Animals eat the carbohydrates, and recombine it with the O2 they breathe in.
This is termed the ‘carbon cycle’ that supports all life on Earth. You and every living thing on Earth are built from organic carbon. It is the way of life. We emit more CO2; there is more life on Earth.
We have an ice age with fewer plants, and the free CO2 in the air increases. The vast bulk of CO2 in the air comes from animals breathing out. Man started releasing CO2 in C18, and we had the little ice age.
According to who you listen to, the world has been cooling since 1997, 1999 or 2005: The latter is my experience around the world, and was published in New Scientist.[b]
Plants use CO2 to do molecular nuclear fusion in their photoblasts: That’s right, the CO2/Carbohydrate circuit if how plants do nuclear fusion. This means they also release He and CH4 – as referenced below.
Though we do breathe out He, as our mitochondria do molecular nuclear fusion in our bodies. Our beating heart also does it. Life does molecular nuclear fusion.
In the course of writing this document it was found that Lupus increase He breathed out. So it would appear viral rump diseases do enhance levels of molecular nuclear fusion.
This is my name for Genome left behind from a full infection, which causes the diseases of age. King’s Collage London and most universities around the world are interested in this area.
While surfing Google for stuff on gamma ray production, I found a document about a conventional boiler. As stated, NASA has found boiling water releases this type of radiation.
Life does MNF
Prof Zimmerman said he did not know if molecular nuclear fusion was important: If it wasn’t, no life on Earth would do it. As it is, all life does it! It is right that he waited for confirmation that this idea had some factual basis.
When he said ‘turbulence in H gas, gives nuclear fusion’, I thought it was a statement. It wasn’t, he wanted a response. In actual fact you need turbulence in pressurized H gas, but I did not know that then.
For molecular nuclear fusion, we need steam under pressure, or water under higher pressure. We need to overcome the strong atomic force fro the Hs. The solitary electron mean that only sometimes we get nucleus on nucleus contact. With atoms with more than two electrons, we never get directly nuclear contact. With compounds of hydrogen, only the direct H interaction will give us nuclear fusion.
I have put out that Prof Zimmerman could do atomic nuclear fusion in 2001. Really his idea was there, but it had to wait until 2008, and some microbubble work to become reality.
You haven’t heard of thast work, as it is very specialized, and not news worthy. Not to the science-light journalists who write our newspapers. So don’t harras Will. He is a smart guy, but busy.
We see radioactive isotopes in the deep, because we do molecular nuclear fusion on the river of water run around the Earth’s mantel. If there was no molecular nuclear fusion going off in the deep, Marie Currie and her brother would not have won two Noble prizes for discovering radioactivity.
Nuclear fission runs down, so after 4 billion years, there should be no nuclear processes going on in the deep. But molecular nuclear fusion tops up the radioactive processes in the deep, and leads to continuing fission.
This simple fact of the running down of nuclear fission has escaped the notice of scientists working on deep radioactivity.. In a way, this is understandable, as we see radioactivity in the deep, no thought has been given to how it can be going on!
The Earth is too old, And the amount of radioactivity we see in the deep, is far too great for the atomic nuclear fusion going on in the metallic hydrogen in the Earth’s core.
We see this with NH4, H2O and hydrocarbons flowing in magma chambers in the deep, we see the release of He and gamma radiation, plus molecular fragments, as we see molecular nuclear fusion here. We see the release of radiation from alcohol stills. That is C2H5OH in turbulent flow.
So CO2 is how life does nuclear fusion. When plants take in CO2, and combine it with water, as I mention elsewhere in this tome, we get off 2/3He, 12/13CH4 and 16/17O. The CH4 is used to build carbohydrates, by combining it with more water.
So we return to my earlier point: Life is organic carbon. Free CO2 levels in the air are a function of the amount of plant growth we have. The climate is controlled by the sun: That big shining, hot ball of fusion in the sky. Nothing to do with you driving a car. As the Americans say ‘Enjoy!’
The magic ingredient for life on this planet is not sun light, but liquid water AND sunlight. On other planet, another cycle may be used to do nuclear fusion. On Earth, it is the Carbon cycle: You are built of organic carbon, you life is dependant on CO2, and the O2 plants excrete from it!
Animals evolved to metabolize the waste gas of plants, O2, eat plant bulk, and exhale CO2 – the gas of life.
This is why both photo blasts and mitochondria give off radiation as they work: Life is using CO2 to do molecular nuclear fusion both ends of the carbon cycle.
It appears that viral and bacterial mitochondria do more molecular nuclear fusion than our body cells.
Nuclear fusion in Molecular systems
This train of thought was started by an internet document I found on nuclear fusion in molecular systems. This was published in 2001 or earlier, but no research work has been done on it!
I am out of date! So much research work is going on here. It turns H2O into 2/3He, 16/17O, gamma waves and heat. It is power with no CO2 or toxic death.
This is for systems from water. But we also see it from all forms of molecular hydrogen. I first learned of it in 1982, about ammonia refineries releasing radiation as they worked.
The nearest reference I could find today was on clean energy: That is the theme of this dissertation, so enjoy the reference.
This did not seem likely, so it was filed away for later use! This came in 2001, on a PhD under Prof. Zimmerman. He did not initially believe in molecular nuclear fusion, as it seems so strange. But it goes on all through nature and science.
Life on Earth does not go from H gas, which does not exist in the air: As a lightening strike will turn this into water – H2O. So this is one O, with two tiny Hs attached.
Molecular H in a fluid, knocks its molecules together so hard due to kinetic interactions, the molecules overcome the strong atomic force for 2 adjacent Hs.
This is what CERN has spent $250 billion, estimate, failing to give man. But even a boiling kettle, in the turbulence of boiling, does it. OK, for one molecule out of 50,000 – but this equates to huge amounts of power – e=mc2 being what it is.
We must break free from thinking that suns are the only places that nuclear fusion happens. The deep sea does it at 3 C, your beating heart does it, as do microwave ovens. So it is all around, and within us.
Molecular nuclear fusion is so important to the development of cancer. The fact that our own blood circulation give out non-ionizing radiation is very important to know.
Though I was told this by an engineer from BNFL, no scientist is actively publishing stuff on this subject, as molecular nuclear fusion is not considered to be real. It is, and it kills.
The levels of heat we see on the sun means that atomic nuclear fusion is too energetic for our needs. Molecular nuclear fusion supplies all the heat and power we can use.
Power from water, with no CO2, so no chance of Global Warming – though that was only ever phantom fiction cooked up by their stooges in academia: Who really should do us all a favor, and go away and study FACT not FICTION.
The EARTH IS NOT WARMING, IT IS EHADED INTO THE NEXT ICE AGE, AS MAN’S EMISSIONS OF CO2 CLIMBS. Molecular nuclear fusion can hold back the ice and death that will result otherwise.
Global Warming was good fiction, because most people do not know about science, and all the scientists who knew that science were transfixed by the money from nuclear power.
Little obvious point here: Global Warming means things get hotter globally. Not wetter. Now nuclear power has given up on the idea, and talks about ‘climate change’. Elsewhere I have given the quote from the Daily Telegraph that there is not one instance of a causal link between CO2 and the climate.
Nuclear power kills, life is organic carbon. Ask any biology student anywhere in the world.
The Industrial Revolution was driven by steam power: Which is the way man has found to do nuclear fusion: On my degree I was taught that steam engines gave off radiation while they work. I have looked on Google and Yahoo now, and most of this old science has been deleted.
So go to a steam fair with a Geiger counter. I was told by an engineer who worked for BNFL, that a beating heart gives off radiation, a bit of old science I refer to often in this document. There is only some medical work being done on this science.
The most important place we see molecular nuclear fusion is in water systems. It does happen in nature to a large extent from steam or high pressure water in turbulent flow, but around the Earth, most molecular nuclear fusion goes off from high pressure water, or using biological catalyst. We also see loads of physical molecular nuclear fusion, which his a bit embarrassing fro CERN!
The first time I was told about this was in 1985, where radio waves cooked birds caught in a radar mast in World War II. This is how microwave ovens work today – as is why the food is slightly radioactive once cooked.
But so is food from the oven, or after grilling or boiling. It turns out that man has used molecular nuclear fusion since he cooked food.
The reference I have found here is to the difficulty in distinguishing irradiated food from cooked food. You can’t – they are both the same, though we tend to like our meals browned too!
The pressure waves as you heart beats sets off molecular nuclear fusion, in the same way that radio waves do. This is why an animal blood system gives off bursts of radiation, while its heart beats. It turns out that all life gives of radiation.
I was told that growing bacteria emit radiation in 1982! Nothing on the web, except this piece! We are used to the idea that life is killed by radiation, but not that we produce low amounts of low power radiation. Look don’t beat me up about it! Take it up with God!
I am interested in cytokines and the immune system, and it turns out they handle the body’s innate radiation production.
Above I noted that photosynthesis was light induced molecular nuclear fusion. Look up the stuff about 3He in the Biomass Hanbook. Page 12 if my memory serves me right!
We are used to thinking nuclear kills. But we should realize that through molecular nuclear fusion, life does nuclear fusion safely. And that it is essential to life on this planet.
So a fields of green crops in the light doing molecular nuclear fusion, is so important to all life on Earth. It seems such a strange idea; no academic has thought to look at this area. Though the release of He, O, CH4 and gamma waves was published in New Scientist in 2009. I can’t be bothered to look, as it will have been edited from the web documents.
Biology does MNF
As just mentioned AGAIN, plant photo blasts release of 2/3He, 12/13CH4 and 16/17O, plus gamma radiation during light hours: When plants take in only H2O and CO2. If this was not going on, there would be parts per hundred trillion He in the air, not the parts per million resulting from radioactive decay in the deep.
I have read in New Scientist, the fact you breathe out He and CH4. You don’t breathe in He, but even without Lupus, you breathe it out. I have found a document mostly dealing with CO, which lists the gases you breathe out in its end appendix.
The deep sea gets in on the act, again releasing 3He and 18O, plus gamma waves. Here we have deep water, in turbulent flow. Thus a major input of energy on the land and in the sea, is from molecular nuclear fusion on Earth: Though for photosynthesis, additional energy from light emitted from the sun is also required.
The molecular nuclear fusion going on in the seas supplies 25% of the heat to Europe. This figure was mentioned in New Scientist, and always read like an interesting guestimate.
So the seas act like a low temperature sun, on the Earth’s surface. It goes on in the deep at Mars, which is why there are huge ecosystems out there. I have read there are similar ecosystems in Mantel pockets on the earth, away from solar radiation.
Deep smokers do molecular nuclear fusion, using the hot water bubbling up from the sea bed. And they produce the energy fro massive ecosystems in the deep.
Deep water is heavy water! Even if there is no volcanic vent in the body of water. The Nazis found this during WW II, but all the physicists were in the US by then. And the Telomark raids destroyed the stores of heavy water.
In chains of reservoirs we see this effect today. As we need the turbulent flow of high pressure water to do molecular nuclear fusion. The surface water does not do it.
So we observe man does molecular nuclear fusion via his machines using steam in turbulent flow. Biology uses water and clever catalysts.
On Io, it is thought that gravity from Jupiter causes liquid water to exist below the surface ice. If we sent a drill to Io, we would find there are high levels of dissolved He supporting volcanism on Io and Europa.
So Io is kept hot due to the molecular nuclear fusion going on in its sub-ice oceans. Life on Mars will go on in the deep, away from the sun weak emissions. On the Earth there are whole ecosystems in the deep waiting to be discovered.
Supported by molecular nuclear fusion, not the heat of the sun. It may turn out life on land is just a side show. No references here, as this is science yet to be done.
I am wrong again! Read ‘Hot oases in chill darkness‘ for details of life with no light.
Back on Earth, the boiling of water gives the required level of turbulence for molecular nuclear fusion to occur: This idea was induced by a comment from Prof Zimmerman, that the turbulent flow of H gas would give nuclear fusion: Where as the linear flow of H gas used by CERN never would.
Man’s MNF today
So the steam cycle does molecular nuclear fusion! And the release of gamma radiation was taught to me at Sheffield University, in 1983. The guy has stumbled on molecular nuclear fusion, and thinks it is a form of cold fusion. Really cold fusion is a weak form of molecular nuclear fusion. At this point read up on ‘cold fusion’
This release of radiation from Ti turbine was also mentioned to me in 1983 by an engineer at NEI Parsons, now part of Siemens power generation. I used to be a metallurgist, hence my interest here.
The radiation is not NDT, it is an ongoing problem, and must be designed for, using special alloys. Both jet engines and steam turbines produce gamma radiation, plus He.
This is at the limit of human knowledge, and though I was taught this at Sheffield University and NEI in 1983, there has been no academic work published on this area. Or it has been deleted, as ever!
Turbine do MNF big time
It was also taught to me that Ti turbines and car engines give off gamma radiation as they work: Though all references to this have been scrubbed from Google: Why and by whom I do not know.
The only guys with an interest in stopping people getting nuclear fusion, and who have the money to pay Google to scrub the references are present nuclear power.
Thank God for the printed word, as there is stuff out there on gamma radiation production from car engines. Nothing on the web though.
Water, ammonia and ethanol stills all give off gamma radiation. There is some chemical work on stills and radiation, but they do not know about molecular nuclear fusion! The bubbling of steam raises water to boiling very quickly, and is termed the Windscale kettle. This technology was devised in the 1950s (sic)
At this juncture it is worth saying why I hate nuclear fission: It is dear, and kills, and produces toxic death.
In contrast, life on this planet does molecular nuclear fusion. It is safe, clean and cheap. It usually goes off from water, so it is basically free.
We lose the He to space, gain H, and at lightening strikes get back our water. Until the Earth swallows the earth, there is more energy in the seas than man can ever hope to use.
He can generate power in space, where ever there is water: So Io looks good!
Doing MNF simply
The Windscale kettle is a very efficient way to do molecular nuclear fusion. So it would be possible to keep the water in a state of boiling by recirculating part of the steam, and using the rest to generate power.
Somebody in the US tried this out, but as they did not cool the spent steam on the cold end of a Carnot plant, and thus recover 85% of the process heat of the power generation steam, they required to recirculate more than 10% of the produced steam.
I term this idea the ‘recirculating steam cycle’. It is a simple and effective way to engineer molecular nuclear fusion. I am waiting to hear back from the American, who ran a Windscale kettle, and got a self sustaining steam cycle.
Strip Lights and Cancer
While I was thinking about this area, I remembered in 1983 being taught that fluorescent lights give off gamma radiation, as they turn Na gas into light.
As they work they turn Na -> He -> H -> light. In mid life as we have a significant partial pressure of He and H, we see a tube display run on, where it produces light with no applied current. Contact Phillips to talk about fluorescent lights causing cancer.
This year Oxford University has got £1 billion to try out H plasmas and nuclear fusion. Plasmas turn protons and electrons into neutrons. We get heavy H, which does more fission, into light and heat – with no toxic end product – other than the neutrons.
We see a high rate of this low atomic number fission, which turns H into light and heat. I am interested in a steam plasma for personal heat and power use. We get a less energetic mixed H and O plasma, which is a better match to our energy needs. It is easier to top up – with regular water. Not H gas.
Oxford is aiming for a one shot plasma, every three hours. A more efficient route would be to use an H plasma tube, and the driving current is based on the pressure of the H gas.
So once we have enough H gas in the tube, a tube will do nuclear fusion with no applied current. No CO2, so no Global Warming. And no toxic waste as from present nuclear power.
This is the idea in put on the Internet, for a heating tube in a power plant. It produces no CO2, and none of the toxic death of nuclear fission. The only peer review I got was four messages asking for more details of my ideas.
It is clean, safe, cheap, clean nuclear fusion. Once we have the plant running, we top up the H of the tubes, and have no other fueling costs.
The places where biology does molecular nuclear fusion is essential to life on this planet, and this area needs a lot of research. It is the single biggest energy source for life, but science does not yet know about it.
In the course of writing this document, it has been found that Lupus, another disease of age, gives out He: The only possible source is by doing biological molecular nuclear fusion.
It is known that cancer is desperate for access to blood, and so water. So it seems probable that all the diseases of age do biological molecular nuclear fusion.
At this point it is worth considering the nature of plasmas. They consist of the atomic nuclei, surrounded by some orbiting electrons, in a sea of electrons. The frequent interactions of the free and orbiting electrons turn some of their energy into heat. This is why we need an applied current.
With plasmas of Hydrogen, we have protons and neutrons occasionally interacting with electrons. The atom is mostly space, so the few interactions usually end as heat. It is different if we have a direct proton on electron collision. Then we form a new neutron.
These neutrons now go on to form heavy hydrogen nuclei. And these fission into heat, and electro magnetic radiation of various frequencies. For brevity above I have talked about only gamma radiation. Really we get all frequencies, from low infra red, up to gamma waves.
We are not bothered about light or even high ultraviolet. X-rays are more problematic though. All of the matter would end up as neutrons at significant pressure. But at low pressure, our fission of Hydrogen into free radiation means that we burn the matter into light, and the rest.
One area I am very curious about is steam plasmas. The O nucleus is still protected by some of the valiancy electrons, but over time, the influx of neutrons causes the atom to fission.
As we do a mass burn, we convert some of the matter into heat and radiation, until we end up with H, and the rational above applies.
It is this matter burn, which his slightly exothermic, and with the energy release by the fission of H, maintains the plasma. Will we still need a small driving current? This will be pressure linked, and the experiments have not yet been done.
So a plasma can burn matter into light. This is why a fluorescent tube loses weight over its life, and then stops working.
So for many. many years, the light in your kitchen has shown how to do nuclear fusion. As has your grill, oven, cooker rings, central heating boiler, plus your beating heart of course.
Physics can stop funding CERN, and investigate how the turbulent flow of steam or high pressure water does nuclear fusion. They are such cleaver people, but have missed the idea that was so obvious to Prof Zimmerman.
He told me in 2001 (sic) that H gas in turbulent flow does nuclear fusion. A process which goes on through the universe. Linear flow, no matter how cool, will never do nuclear fusion.
All man’s chemical engines do molecular nuclear fusion. Burning fossil fuels would take in heat if it was not for the molecular nuclear fusion their flames set off in the steam the burning produces.
A rocket motor does molecular nuclear fusion as the fuel is burnt. This tells us why high pressure rockets give more thrust, as the fuel is burnt.
Using these ideas it is totally possible to design a jet airplane, which flies into space at hypersonic speed, using water as its only fuel.
The industrial revolution was powered by molecular nuclear fusion, as is technology today. What is lacking is an understanding of how it works.
Back to stuff I learned in 1984. When you feed an animal a meal of carbohydrates, their stomach gives off radiation!
This is why people breathe out He and CH4 – along with the output from the molecular nuclear fusion going on in the blood system.
This also means that you will make Lithium. Of which there is no other major source in our diets. The stuff is too reactive.
However analysis of animal excrement will show up high levels of Li. Biology is full of molecular nuclear fusion: Wherever we look, we see He and gamma radiation.
With compost heaps we get the production of CH4 and He, as just mentioned. If we infuse the compost with air and He gas, we will get more molecular nuclear fusion. But we will also be making Li, which is an alkali metal. This will come out in the fluid running from the compost.
This can be confirmed by a simple chemical analysis! With people, though the bile animal digestion systems make hides the Li. They can’t hide their production of radiation though. Or the presence of high levels of Li salts.
However analysis of animal excrement will show up high levels of Li. And the exhalation of He and CH4 is referenced above.
An H plasma does atomic nuclear fusion, and is well suited to large energy users. A tiny fraction of the power can be used to do electrolysis of water to give new H gas. So once stated, no external power is used, and there is no CO2 of toxic death produced.
As mentioned above, life on Earth is supported by plants and bacteria taking in CO2, and excreting O2. Nuclear Power tried top say is green, as it does not produce CO2. It doesn’t. It just produces toxic death. It is so not nice to life!
For personal use a steam plasma may yield only 1,000th of the heat of an H plasma. This is a good match to personal use! It takes in a trickle of water, and produces all the heat and power for a house.
Rather than using a mains tap, we are better off using bottles of distilled water. They are very cheap, and our use of the water will mean we need a new bottle every ten years.
We will have no utility bills. A small plasma fusion plant is best sited in a garage our out building due to the radiation out put. But this will be far lower than the low power gamma waves we get from a kitchen today.
As expected, there has been no work published in this area – though I did give one reference to this area above.
A steam plasma will result in loads of neutron formation, and heavy hydrogen. The oxygen will also become heavy due to the neutrons, and fission down into Hs.
A steam plasma is easy to set up, and the driving current we need to maintain the plasma should be a function of the steam pressure. In use we could run a small steam process using steam plasma tubes, and generate a massive excess of current, enough to power a street.
There are no references here, as this is novel work to the world: Work the engineering material department of Sheffield University is well placed TO DO! It is also where I though of molecular nuclear fusion!
Taking personal energy use out of the grid will make such a difference to power generation. Using H plasma tubes should produce clean, and CO2 free, power generation.
So safe, clean, cheap power with no toxic death!
The reference on H plasmas above is for the IAEA Nuclear Power body. So they were aware of H plasmas, but did not think they were important. Or more likely, they were too simple and cheap to warrant further work.
In an H plasma, we get
p+ + e- -> n0
where p = proton, e=electron and n- neutron.
In a steam plasma we also have a O plasma. Here we see
16O + 2n -> 18O
& 18O -> 28Be + E1 Where E1 = energy equivalent of 2 n.
We then do
n + 4Be -> 23He + E2
22H + E3 -> E4
E1 + E2 + E3 + E4 are the energy equivalent of O, expressed as heat, raw energy and electro magnetic radiation. Basically we do O -> E∑
Both 17O and 18O are secondary isotopes, meaning that their nucleosynthesis requires seed nuclei. 17O is primarily made by the burning of hydrogen into helium during the CNO cycle, making it a common isotope in the hydrogen burning zones of stars.
We should note at this stage that burning fossil fuels does molecular nuclear fusion. This is why a chemical process causes nuclear alteration: That according to the text books can’t occur! Thus molecular nuclear fusion explains stuff about the real world that is a mystery otherwise.
Most 18O is produced when14N (made abundant from CNO burning) captures a 4He nucleus, making 18O common in the helium-rich zones of stars. Approximately a billion degrees Celsius is required for two oxygen nuclei to undergo nuclear fusion to form the heavier nucleus of sulfur.
In photosynthesis we turn 16O into 17O. But physics does not consider molecular nuclear fusion as a process, so it has not been written up yet.
Returning to the fissioning of Oxygen: Is it was not for all the neutrons, these fission are endothermic. As it is, they are very exothermic.
Every fission process here, converts the neutron equivalent of 2 Hs into energy. It is the H plasma which generates all the neutrons, that makes all this work.
So I was wrong, a steam plasma is as exothermic as a H one. And it is the sort of stuff chemical engineering should be studying. As it is, today all the research is being done by the medics!
Who have found that a steam plasma generates many gamma waves: Which can only be produced by nuclear stuff! They do not realize they have found molecular nuclear fusion.
None of the work is published on the web, yet. IT HAS COME OUT OF MY IMMAGINATION. How interesting that IAEA has published stuff on an H plasma doing nuclear fusion.
I was surfing about steam plasmas, and I found there was a whole body of work out there on the sterilizing effect of a steam plasma, due to the high levels of gamma radiation we get.
Oxford University is talking about firing an H plasma every three hours. They are going to catch the neutrons with concrete: This is not the way the sun works!
We want continuous H plasma in a tube. At a certain diving pressure, we will require no current top maintain the plasma: It will be self powering.
My reference here is for ‘Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1550 - 1553 (1995) ‘Stopping of Heavy Ions in a Hydrogen Plasma’. So some work is being done by physics on H plasmas.
We want a cylinder of H gas to maintain the pressure, and a vent valve to shut the plasma down. They are right about the neutrons though.
Here a concrete made with FeO as the filler, rather than sand will be more effective. Nature does spray out neutrons in to the environment, as it does molecular nuclear fusion from water.
In the chaotic flow, we get some proton on proton events, which form He. But we get as many protons on electron events. So we get
p+ + p+ -> He2+
p+ + e- -> n0
all those neutrons are going to give us loads of nuclear reactions:
2He2++ 1/2n0 -> 3/4HE2+
Now that decays
3/4He -> 2/3H + E1/2
Where E1/2 is the energy equivalent of 1 or 2 neutrons. Which we get out as heat and electro magnetic radiation. This can be up to gamma frequencies.
When we fuse Hs, we give out E1, but when it decays, E1 is taken in, from our E1/.2. So we gain the energy equivalent of 1 neutron.
Those neutrons are causing matter to fission, down to light. And the plasma is turning H into neutrons.
If we put toxic fuel rods next to H plasma tubes, the neutrons cause the toxic isotopes to fission into shorter lasting, and less toxic isotopes.
During this, they do a matter burn, and convert some of their mass into heat and electro magnetic radiation.
Obviously we do
2/3H -> E1/2 again as heat and electro magnetic radiation.
So an H plasma tube converts matter into neutrons, and so energy. Basically we form our own little neutron star. But at moderate pressures. If we then use these tubes to generate power, we can take off some of this power, to maintain the plasma.
We also do electrolysis of water. So no CO2 or toxic death.
Nuclear power is obsessed with CO2: The forget that plants take it in, to support life. There is only 0.00037% of it in the air.
A figure that has remained static since the industrial revolution. The 4 trillion plants on the Earth sink CO2, with today’s climate, down to 0.00037%.
In the 18th century, man started releasing CO2, and we had the little ice age. And ice ages are the only way to increase CO2 levels in the air. Thank goodness I studied physics at school.
The chaotic flow of the plasma gives us loads of electron on proton events, which forms neutrons. We also form positrons and duo neutrons, but they decay fast.
So we get loads of 1H + 1/2n0 -> 2/3H
We also see 16O + 1/2n0 -> 17/18O
interestingly to -> 4/5Be + E1/2 +1/2n0
And thus 5Be -> 2/3He + E1/2+1/2n0
And then 3He -> 2 x 2/3H + E1/2+1/2n0
And 2/3H -> E1/2+1/2n0
So steam plasmas look so interesting! This is all known to Physics, as my references show. But physics has no knowledge of how molecular hydrogen decays into heat and electro magnetic radiation.
Nuclear processes involving molecular hydrogen are the source of much He2+, they think is due to radioactive fission in the deep Earth. They also ascribe the natural production of tritium to the same reason. Really it comes from molecular nuclear fusion occurring at the Earth’s mantel.
The Ozone story
He is hard to detect: You need to sample the air, and tae it back to the lab. for gas analysis. However with molecular nuclear fusion, the human nose can detect O3 – ozone.
It is formed as molecular nuclear fusion turns water into He and O. The free radical O bonds with molecular oxygen, to form O3 – ozone.
We get O3 at the sea shore, above the deep shore, above peat bogs, and at water falls. We even get it over fields of green crops in the light: All areas where molecular nuclear fusion is occurring.
Electrical switch gear and chemical engines also form O3, as they do molecular nuclear fusion.
The water molecule is not broken apart to form H and O, or we would see thermo nuclear explosions ever five minutes, as cosmic rays started H explosions! Instead we lose the He to space, but keep the O3, until it is dissociated in the stratosphere.
My reference here tries to explain an H explosion using chemistry. You can’t! Hold a Geiger counter at a balloon of H, as you hold a lighted match to the balloon. When you hearing has returned, you have just experience a thermonuclear blast.
We make O, but this is blamed on chemistry in our bodies. Where the CH4 and He come from, is not explained.
But at water falls and breaking waves, there is no chemical process that could make O! Except if we accept we are doing molecular nuclear fusion, in a nuclear reaction.
In 2001, I started a PhD under the then Dr Zimmerman. It ended when I started saying too loudly, that Global Warming was Public Relations by nuclear power. So I did the obvious, moved to Salford and went singing at the Lowry.
In 2003 the then Prof Zimmerman started agreeing with me. Even though he was a chemical engineer, he did not tell the world, as there were other academics earning their living from that phantom science.
He got my studying the improved heat flow from steam in turbulent flow. A month ago, after two years nagging from me, he borrowed a Geiger counter, and will now have seen the release of radiation from MNF.
My reference above is for sun flowers in a field. How interesting! As we know green crops in the light, do biological molecular nuclear fusion! They release He, 17O, 13CH4, gamma waves and heat.
The guy had found out how to do nuclear fusion on Earth, but was too focused on his work, to think about the area. He left that to me, as creative thinking is what I do. And singing. He is about getting students through exams.
So why am I not in Sheffield? Because if I was, I would strop thinking too. But now I have thought, so get will on firstname.lastname@example.org
Other people have published work on the emission of He, CH4, O, heat and gamma waves from green plants in the light. So green plants do molecular nuclear fusion!
Growing bacteria and animal mitochondria also do molecular nuclear fusion! So life is fusion driven. This is why Carbon dating works, and also why it falls down.
Plants take in CO2, and convert it to CH4, as do peat bogs: Plus He, O and gamma waves. But as we have a see of neutrons, we get 13C, not 12C. This is nearly stable, so the ration of 12C to 13C tells us how long ago since the substance was alive.
Animals do molecular nuclear fusion in their mitochondria, so we see 13C in the carbohydrates they build into their body. So this decays at a fixed rate.
In a neutron free environment, this is a fixed ration. So in the air, a Carbon date is fairly correct: It needs to be adjusted fro the background count. So areas near water falls or breaking waves are going to be wrong.
So molecular nuclear fusion means we need to adjust our dates. This is OK usually, until we get to the deep sea or peat bogs.
With peat bogs, an item buried 50 years ago, comes up with a Carbon date of 500 years: This was anecdotal news from the radio a few years ago.
So the proof of molecular nuclear fusion comes from where we have datable stuff, which comes up with a wrong carbon date. It also suggests that to reprocess radioactive waste, we need to burry it in a peat bog.
But this environment is very hostile, and I doubt we could stop radioactive leakage. We might be able to set up units, where we pass corrosion resistant containers through boiling water.
We collect the steam, and keep bubbling it back through the water, and the boiling molecular nuclear fusion keeps the steam pressure up.
Plants take in CO2, combine it with H2O, and produce CH4, He, O, head and gamma waves.
CO2 + 6 H2O -> CH4 + He + O +emr + heat
Where emr is electromagnetic radiation. In the gamma range here.
In the process it sprays out a neutron. These bond with 12C to form 13C. So if we know the local background count, we can figure out the half life on 13C, and the ration of 12C to 13C will give us the date the plant matter was last alive.
But animals combine the carbohydrates, produced by bonding CH4 with H2O, with O2 from the air, to get at energy – and on the way also do molecular nuclear fusion!
CH5OHn + (n-1)O2 -> 13CO2 + nH2O + He +emr + heat
So Animals also produce 13C.
Nature produces gamma waves plus He and O, wherever it is doing molecular nuclear fusion. This O bonds with O2, to give O3.
So wherever life is doing molecular nuclear fusion, we get He and O3!
So locally, we can get increased background counts, which go along with higher levels of neutrons.
They bond with 13C, to form 14C, which is very unstable! So we see an increased rate of decay into 12C. In the deep, at peat bogs, at water falls, and in fields in the country.
So molecular nuclear fusion explains why radio carbon dating works, but also says why we need to amend the dates we have given to objects!
All around, and even within animal blood systems, nature is turning water into He, O, radiation and heat. We lose the He to space, and in time, free light in space forms H gas, and this our atmosphere gains.
It is not held by our weak gravity, but if we have a lightening strike, or naked flame, we turn O into H2O. This is kept around the Earth. So over time, biology does molecular nuclear fusion. It supports all life on Earth.
Plant photo blasts do it, as do animal, bacterial or fungal mitochondria. Plants take in CO2 and excrete O2; the latter two eat plant matter, and combine the O to form CO2: The gas of life.
In warm periods there are more plants taking in CO2, so free CO2 in the air falls. In an ice age it rises.
The industrial revolution was driven by steam: But steam in turbulent flow does molecular nuclear fusion. So the industrial revolution was driven by molecular nuclear fusion.
(I will except the compressive steam cycle, which was driven by chemical processes. It lost out to the expansive steam cycle, which liberates 4 times as much energy, as it does nuclear fusion.)
So biology is full of nuclear fusion! It even describes how molecular nuclear fusion goes on in the deep seas at 3 C. So physics insistence that you require millions of degrees C, and high pressures is just wrong.
Which his why CERN can’t do nuclear fusion. A beating animal heart, like you does! This is why you breathe out CH4 and He.
Google gave me a lot of hits for CH4, He and cancer – but I don’t have time to read the pieces. Certainly rump infections (Including cancer, heart disease, Lupus, Diabetes, MS …) should convert endogenous CO2 and H2O into H2 and CH4.
The work on Lupus shows that the raised levels of He are detectable (See later fro reference), if you have the condition. As rump infections use novel, and more exothermic biological molecular nuclear fusion than body cells, this is a whole new target for medicine.
If you give the antisense to the novel molecular nuclear fusion we see, the infected cells go necrotic, and the B cells make the active antibody to the condition, the antibody that is normally not made – and will cure the condition.
Usually you breathe out He and CH4. So does your compost heap! The deep sea makes 3He and 17O, from H2O: This is the source of O3 with breaking waves and waterfalls – more molecular nuclear fusion!
There is medical work out there on using a steam plasma to sterilize medical equipment. It says that steam plasma makes gamma rays.
But frequency is linked to energy, and no chemical reaction is of itself, energetic enough. So if we see gamma rays or X-rays from chemical equations, we are seeing molecular nuclear fusion from water. Going on alongside the reaction.
Certainly a steam plasma could no be doing nuclear fusion: Not without seriously heavy water being fissioned, and steam plasmas go on from regular water.
The IAEA noted that H plasmas do nuclear fusion. The process that is meant to require millions of degrees C, and here happen below 800 C!
Steam plasmas run at 280 C, so to see gamma rays, we have to be doing molecular nuclear fusion. Prof Zimmerman will confirm this.
Steam plasmas are doing nuclear processes, and here the only one available is molecular nuclear fusion.
In 2001 Prof Zimmerman got me studying the helical turbulence heat exchanger. This does molecular nuclear fusion, as steam flows through the unit. The guy has discovered how to do nuclear fusion on Earth.
In this document most of my references are via web pages. This is because most science documents are put on the web, and the web page reference is the simplest way to give it. Otherwise people would have to Google my references.
[a] In the Earth's atmosphere, there is one 3He atom for every million 4He atoms. However, helium is unusual in that its isotopic abundance varies greatly depending on its origin. In the interstellar medium, the proportion of 3He is around a hundred times higher.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
[b] http://www.climatecooling.org/ With the Sun's face nearly quiet, the monthly patterns over the last 12 months are most similar to those of 1797 preceding the Dalton Minimum of 1798-1823 during the little ice age (Timo Niroma).
 Principles of physics By Raymond A. Serway, John W. Jewett p557
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